Autolyse was first introduced by Professor Raymond Calvel in his book: “The Taste Of Bread”. It’s a beginner-friendly method to develop flour without kneading or yeast. Using this technique will improve the amount the bread rises in the oven. As well as reducing the amount of kneading or fermentation development required. The extensibility enhancement of the gluten after autolysing the flour, make it popular for sourdough and baguette makers.
Much is made of the impact on autolysis, many say it is a core stage in bread making due to its rheology benefits, others say it’s a needless step. Let’s decide together!
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What is an autolyse?
Autolyse (pronounced “au-toe-lees”) is the process of “undergoing or causing to undergo autolysis.”
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Autolysis is “the breakdown of plant or animal tissue by the action of enzymes contained in the tissue affected; self-digestion.”
How to do an autolyse
Combine the flour and water in a bowl and gently mix for 1-2 minutes. Once the ingredients are evenly distributed, leave, cover the bowl and rest for at least 15 minutes.
After the rest period, the salt, yeast and other remaining ingredients are added and the dough is kneaded.
How autolyse works
As the water is soaked up by the wheat flour, the protein in the flour becomes hydrated. The moistened flour will then undergo enzyme activity. Here the hydrated gluten softens and unwinds into longer strands.
The same benefits occur during the first gentle kneading stage, but during autolysis, the gluten strands unwind at their own pace. This allows the gluten to stretch without contraction or ripping as the dough rises during proofing or the baking stage.
Repairs broken protein
The gentle activation of the fully hydrated flour helps to repair broken gluten strands which are quite common in poor quality flour. This means that low protein all-purpose flour can be strengthened to make bread. The bonding that occurs after autolyse would not be possible in standard dough production.
Enzymes impact the gluten
The hydration of the flour allows the enzyme, “Protease” to multiply activity. Protease catalyses the hydration of the proteins by breaking down the peptide bonds between amino acids. As the bonds break down, the gluten strands become smaller and looser. This improves how the dough can flow, stretch, and makes the dough softer.
As the gluten structure becomes defined during this step, when it comes to kneading the amount it requires is much less. Even a 15 minute autolyse can reduce mixing time by 2-4 minutes.
When the dough is kneaded, oxygen is incorporated. Oxygenated dough adds strength to the gluten structure initially and helps the yeast respire. Yet if the dough is left to ferment for a long time, more oxygen is incorporated.
A heavily oxygenated dough structure will weaken. Excessive oxygen will also remove the carotenoid pigments in the flour. These provide colour and much of the “bready” flavour. The process of losing carotenoids is called “bleaching of the flour”. By kneading for less time we improve the taste, flavour and structure of long-fermented bread such as sourdough.
What stage of bread making should I autolyse?
Bakers autolyse before the dough is kneaded. If we use the 15 stages of bread making format, autolyse is stage number 3. After the creation of the preferment and mise en place ( weighing the ingredients).
How long to autolyse for?
Between 15-40 minutes is the standard length of time to autolyse. Dr Lyn from Bakerpedia says 16 minutes is all that’s required. If pushed for time, a short autolyse is better than none. Many bakers choose to extend this process between 5 minutes to 2 hours, and even overnight! As a general rule, you should look at the flour you are using to see how long you should autolyse. The length is largely determined by the amount and quality of protein available. Flour that is already well-suited for bread making requires a shorter time.
Each brand of flour will behave differently, so there are no hard-fast rules. A little bit of experimentation is required to determine how long to autolyse your flour. Here’s a table that will help:
|Flour type:||Length of the autolyse:|
|All-purpose flour||45 mins – 3 hours|
|Bread flour||30 minutes – 1½ hours|
|Premium bread flour||20 minutes – 1 hour|
|Whole wheat flour||45 mins – 4 hours|
Should I add salt to autolyse?
Autolyse without salt is the most common method and (arguably) the only one that should be used. Including the salt inhibits the rate of protease activity. This makes the gluten more rigid by losing some of its extensibility gains.
When shaping, the dough that’s been autolysed with salt will retract to its original shape. The rise in the oven will also be marginally less. It can still be a good idea to include the salt for autolyse if hand kneading as it will reduce the time spent mixing.
If you have to dissolve your salt in the water you will have to remove some of the water from the recipe. In this case, you will struggle to make a drier dough when you delay salts addition. Autolysing a flour-water mixture that’s low on water will damage the gluten. In this case, the salt will have to be added for the autolyse.
Should I add the yeast to the autolyse?
Adding yeast starts respiration and alcoholic fermentation which produces gas. If the dough becomes gassy before it is kneaded you may have problems. It will be harder to knead and as the yeast consumes the available simple sugars for CO2 production, the yeast may exhaust its supply of food too early. This can lead to a dense loaf of bread. It’s best to delay its inclusion until it is ready for kneading.
Fermentaise – adding salt and the levain to autolyse
Having said my previous comment, when hand kneading sometimes I’ll add all the ingredients including the salt and the yeast. I’ll then lightly mix and leave to rest for just 10 minutes. Providing it’s just for 10 minutes, a fermentaise reduces the amount of time I have to knead, so my arms don’t get so tired! The amount of yeast used should be below 2% bakers percentage alongside a cool room temperature. If it’s warm I’ll store the dough in the fridge or use cool water.
Should I add sourdough starter to the autolyse?
When making sourdough bread, the starter can be added to the autolyse. The sourdough fermentation process is slow to start. Letting the dough sit for 20-30 minutes before mixing will benefit the dough will produce minimal gas.
If autolysing for longer you might want to consider adding it after the autolyse. The only consideration here is that the dough will be correctly hydrated without the water from the starter. A dough that is too dry can damage the gluten particles causing a negative effect. See my sourdough autolyse article for more specifics.
Can I add a preferment to the autolyse?
Using a preferment adds mature flour to the dough. This will have already developed gluten, organic acids and enzyme activity. Adding a preferment levain to a dough speeds up the development of gluten and enhance the gas-producing and gas-retaining properties of the dough. Many bakers can’t decide whether to add the levain to the autolyse or afterwards. So, here’s my thought process:
There is little gain from including the levain in the autolyse. It has already matured, so won’t benefit from the process. However, I will still add a poolish preferment to the autolyse in most cases.
Most preferments have (roughly) a 1.1 flour to water ratio. This is wetter than an ordinary dough which ranges from 60-80% water. Therefore the water in the wet preferment will contribute significantly to the hydration of the main dough. If the wet preferment is missing in the autolyse, the flour will be underhydrated. The underhydration of the gluten can damage it making it worse at retaining gas.
Stiff preferments such as a low hydration biga or pâte fermentée can be added after the autolyse.
What are the benefits of autolysing?
Taking this extra step before mixing improves the dough by:
- The dough requires less kneading
- The risk of bleaching (over-oxygenation) of the flour reduces
- Handling properties improve
- Moulded dough retains its shape
- A more complex gluten structure
- Improved rise of the bread when baking
- Layers are more defined when making croissants
- Flours with less protein benefit from autolyse. It helps the broken proteins to repair and become stronger.
If done right, autolysed bread can have a better texture, bigger rise and an improved shape. It’s not essential, though it makes things a little easier and better.
Who is Raymond Calvel?
Raymond Calvel wrote the most amazing book about bread making in France and became a key influencer of bread bakers in recent history.
“Le Goût du Pain” was written in 1990 and translated into English several years later. The book documents his thoughts on modern baking. He shares his passion for bakers to focus on the quality of the bread over appearance. He talks about his campaign for common unhelpful practices to be removed.
Calvel conducted many experiments during his baking technician career which he shares. He was the first person to share autolyse methods with the modern world in this book. He compares its effects in different applications. At the time this was groundbreaking. If you want a copy of the best bread-related book I have ever read, click the link below to go to Amazon:
Conclusion – how common is it to autolyse?
Professional bakers are pretty split. Having more bowls lying around in bakeries can cause more havoc than benefits. For some, it is practically impossible, but for others, it’s an essential stage of making bread. What do you think? Comment below.
Frequently asked questions about autolyse
Can you autolyse overnight?
You can autolyse dough overnight. Reduce the dough mixing time and the fermentation period to prevent the gluten from breaking down. Long bulk fermentation is prefered to extended autolyse as yeast fermentation is advantageous to the bread.
Can you autolyse for too long?
If the dough is autolysed too long the gluten structure will weaken and not rise as well. If the levain is included in the autolyse, the dough can also become over fermented. After a long autolyse, kneading and bulk fermentation must be reduced.
The salt doesn’t dissolve, what do I do?
Some brands of salt don’t dissolve well when kneading by hand. They have to be added to water and whisked to dissolve before kneading. You’ll need to remove a portion of water that is 3 times the weight of the salt from the total water of the recipe. Add the salt to the separated water to dissolve. Shake in a jam jar or whisk before adding to the dough after the autolyse.
Should I autolyse sourdough bread?
Although not essential, the autolyse process improves the oven spring of sourdough bread by 5-10%. It also reduces the amount of oxygen that is incorporated allowing a more flavourful bread.
Should I autolyse pizza dough?
This method is perfect for stretching out focaccia in a tray as the dough doesn’t pull back together once stretched. For one-day pizzas, you can autolyse to reduce the amount the dough contracts when stretching it out.
Professional pizza makers (Pizzaiolos) tend not to autolyse. They use small amounts of yeast to ferment their dough over 2-3 days before baking. Autolysing doughs like this can cause over oxygenation, creating a poor and flat pizza.
Should I include fats and sweeteners in the autolyse?
Fats lubricate the flour making it harder to form a tight gluten structure, whereas, sugar inhibits the water in the dough. Providing the flour has enough liquid, it is best to delay the addition of fat and sugar until after the autolyse. Preferably add it in the last few minutes of mixing.