Autolyse was first introduced by Professor Raymond Calvel in his book: “The Taste Of Bread”. It’s a beginner-friendly method to develop flour without kneading or yeast. Using this technique improves how much bread can rise in the oven. As well as reducing the amount of kneading and gluten development required. The extensibility enhancement of the gluten after autolysing the flour makes it popular for sourdough and baguette makers.
Much is made of the impact on autolysis, many say it is a core stage in bread making due to its rheology benefits, and others say it’s a needless step. Let’s decide together!
What is an autolyse?
Autolyse (pronounced “au-toe-lees”) is the process of “undergoing or causing to undergo autolysis.” Autolysis is “the breakdown of plant or animal tissue by the action of enzymes contained in the tissue affected; self-digestion.”
Combine the flour and water in a bowl and gently mix for 1-2 minutes. Once the ingredients are evenly distributed, cover the bowl and leave it to rest for at least 15 minutes.
After the rest period, the salt, yeast and any other ingredients remaining are added and the dough can be kneaded, or at least, gently incorporated, ready for bulk fermentation.
How autolyse works
As water is soaked up by the wheat flour, the protein in the flour becomes hydrated. Here the moistened gluten softens and unwinds into longer strands. The moistened flour will then undergo enzymic activity.
Many of the same benefits occur during the first gentle kneading stage. But during autolysis, the gluten strands unwind at their own pace. This allows the gluten to stretch without contraction or ripping as the dough rises during proofing or the baking stage.
Repairs broken protein
The gentle activation of the fully hydrated flour helps to repair broken gluten strands which are common in flour, especially poor quality brands. It means that low protein flour can be strengthened so that it can be used to make bread. The bonding that occurs after autolyse would not be possible in standard dough production.
Enzymes impact the gluten
The hydration of the flour allows the enzyme, Protease to multiply activity. Protease catalyses the breaking down of the peptide bonds between amino acids (protein). As the bonds break down, the gluten strands become smaller and looser. This improves how the dough can flow, stretch, and makes the dough able to rise higher.
As the gluten is matured during this step, it requires less kneading. Even a 10 minute autolyse can reduce mixing time by 2-4 minutes.
When dough is kneaded it incorporates oxygen. Oxygenated flour strengthens the gluten structure and provides oxygen so the yeast can respire. Respiration is a more energy-efficient way of producing carbon dioxide than fermentation. More oxygen will be incorporated during the first and second rise.
A heavily oxygenated dough structure will begin to weaken. It will also remove carotenoid pigments in the flour. These provide colour and much of the “bready” flavour. The process of losing carotenoids is called “bleaching of the flour”. By using autolyse to reduce kneading time we can improve the taste, flavour and structure of a long-fermented bread, such as sourdough.
What are the benefits of autolysing?
Taking this extra step before mixing improves the dough by:
Flours with less protein benefit from autolyse. It helps the broken proteins to repair and become stronger.
If done right, autolysed bread can have a better texture, bigger rise and an improved shape. It’s not essential, it just makes things a little easier and better.
What stage of bread making should I autolyse?
Bakers use autolysis before kneading. If we use the 15 stages of bread making format, autolyse is stage number 3. After the creation of the preferment and mise en place ( weighing the ingredients).
How long to autolyse for?
Between 15-40 minutes is the standard length of time to autolyse. Dr Lyn from Bakerpedia says 16 minutes is all that’s required. If pushed for time, a short autolyse is better than none.
Many bakers extend the process to 2 hours, and even overnight! As a general rule, you should look at the flour you are using to see how long you should autolyse. The length is largely determined by the amount and quality of protein available. Flour that is already well-suited for bread making requires a shorter time.
Each brand of flour will behave differently, so there are no hard-fast rules. A little bit of experimentation is required to determine how long to autolyse your flour. Here’s a table that will help:
Length of the autolyse:
45 mins – 3 hours
30 minutes – 1½ hours
Premium bread flour
20 minutes – 1 hour
Whole wheat flour
45 mins – 4 hours
Should I add salt to autolyse?
Autolysing without salt is the most common method and (arguably) the only one that should be used. Salt inhibits the rate of protease activity. This makes the gluten more rigid by losing some of its extensibility gains. Its inclusion means when shaping, dough retracts to its original shape. The rise in the oven will also be marginally less.
In some cases, it is a good idea to include salt in autolysing. When hand kneading it reduces the time you’ll need to spend mixing. If after autolyse your salt doesn’t dissolve easily in the dough, mix it with water before adding it to the dough. The same amount of water should be removed from the recipe.
You should be prepared to only use this method where the dough is to be reasonably wet. Autolysing a flour-water mixture that’s low on water (as some has been removed to dissolve the salt) damages the gluten. If the dough you are making is fairly stiff and dry, the salt will have to be added for the autolyse if it does not easily dissolve.
Should I add the yeast to the autolyse?
Adding yeast starts respiration and alcoholic fermentation to produce gas. If the dough becomes gassy before it is kneaded you may have problems. It will be harder to knead and as the yeast consumes the available simple sugars for CO2 production, the yeast may exhaust its supply of food too early. This can lead to a dense loaf of bread. It’s best to delay the inclusion of the levain until it is ready for kneading.
Fermentaise – adding salt and the levain to autolyse
When hand kneading sometimes I’ll add all the ingredients including the salt and the yeast. I’ll then lightly mix and autolyse for 10 minutes. This process is sometimes called fermentaise! Providing the fermentaise is short, it reduces the amount of time required to knead the gluten. This is great to prevent my arms from getting tired!
The amount of yeast used should be below 2% baker’s percentage at a cool room temperature. If it’s warm in my kitchen, I’ll store the dough in the fridge or use cooler water to make the dough.
Should I add sourdough starter to the autolyse?
When making sourdough bread, the starter can be added to the autolyse. The sourdough fermentation process is slow to start. Letting the dough sit for 20-30 minutes before mixing will benefit the dough will produce minimal gas.
If autolysing for longer you might want to consider adding it after the autolyse. The only consideration here is that the dough will be correctly hydrated. Without the water from the starter, the dough can be fairly dry. A dry dough can damage the gluten particles causing a negative effect. See my sourdough autolyse article for more specifics.
Can I add a preferment to the autolyse?
Using a preferment adds mature flour to the dough. This will have already developed gluten, organic acids and enzyme activity. Adding a preferment levain to a dough speeds up the development of gluten and enhances the gas-producing and gas-retaining properties of the dough. Many bakers can’t decide whether to add the levain to the autolyse or afterwards. So, here’s my thought process:
There is little gain from including the levain in the autolyse. It has already matured, so won’t benefit from the process. However, I will still add a poolish preferment to the autolyse in most cases. Here’s why:
A poolish is made at a 1:1 ratio of flour to water, with a bit of yeast. This is wetter than an ordinary dough which typically ranges from 60-80% water. Therefore the water in the wet preferment such as a poolish will contribute significantly to the hydration of the main dough. If the wet preferment is missing in the autolyse, the flour will be underhydrated. As mentioned above, the underhydration of gluten can damage its ability to retain gas. Stiff preferments such as a low hydration biga or pâte fermentée can be added after the autolyse.
Who is Raymond Calvel?
Raymond Calvel wrote the most amazing book about bread making in France and became a key influencer of bread bakers in history. “Le Goût du Pain” was written in 1990 and translated into English several years later. The book documents his thoughts on modern baking. He shares his passion for bakers to focus on the quality of the bread over appearance. He talks about his campaign for common unhelpful practices to be removed.
Calvel conducted many experiments during his baking technician career which he shares. He was the first person to share autolyse methods with the modern world in this book. He compares its effects in different applications. At the time this was groundbreaking. If you want a copy of the best bread-related book I have ever read, click the link below to go to Amazon:
Professional bakers are pretty split. Having more bowls lying around in bakeries can cause more havoc than benefits. For these bakers, the stage is practically impossible, but for others, it takes their bread to the next level and is essential to their bread. What do you think about autolyse? Discuss in the comments below.
You can autolyse dough overnight. Reduce the dough mixing time and the fermentation period to prevent the gluten from breaking down. Long bulk fermentation is preferred to extended autolyse as yeast fermentation is advantageous to the bread.
If the dough is autolysed too long the gluten structure can weaken and not rise as well during proofing. If the levain is included in the autolyse, the dough can also become over fermented. If autolysing for several hours, kneading and bulk fermentation must be reduced.
Some brands of salt don’t dissolve well when kneading by hand. They have to be added to water and whisked to dissolve before kneading. You’ll need to remove a portion of water that is 3 times the weight of the salt from the total water of the recipe. Add the salt to the separated water to dissolve. Shake in a jam jar or whisk before adding to the dough after the autolyse.
This method is perfect for stretching out focaccia in a tray as the dough doesn’t pull back together once stretched. For one-day pizzas, you can autolyse to reduce the amount the dough contracts when stretching it out. Professional pizza makers (Pizzaiolos) tend not to autolyse. They use small amounts of yeast to ferment their dough over 2-3 days before baking. Autolysing doughs like this can cause over-oxidation, creating a poor and flat pizza.
Fats lubricate the flour making it harder to form a tight gluten structure, whereas, sugar inhibits the water in the dough. Providing the flour has enough liquid, it is best to delay the addition of fat and sugar until after the autolyse. Preferably add it in the last few minutes of mixing.
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What is a good way to mix 50 grams (or any amount, more or less) of sourdough starter into 500 grams of flour after autolyse. I fear that if I follow pantrymama’s stretch and fold technique the starter won’t be evenly distributed.
Heck, even a good old fashioned water, yeast, and honey leaven.
I just made a couple of loaves of chocolate bread. Over 1kg I used 130 grams of starter “discard,” 120 grams of cocoa powder, and 1 tbsp of yeast “proved” in 30 grams of water.
I know this is a big question and I’ll understand if you’re too busy to answer it, but how would you handle this?
I kneaded the lump for 10 minutes. It seems to have turned out fine. But …. how would you handle it?
Tomorrow I’m doing the same bread but without the yeast.
My starter is
20 grams starter
50 grams flour
30 grams cocoa
30 grams sugar
110 grams water.
Any thoughts you would care to share would be welcome.
Hi Harold, I’m guessing that you plan to autolyse without the salt, if so, here’s what I would do if concerned about the starter not combining. I would reserve some of the water to dissolve the salt and add the starter to it, breaking it up into little pieces as you add it and then whisking. This will make it a little easier to disperse the starter throughout the dough. You’ll then want to give it a gentle knead.
That said, I’d just skip the autolyse altogether and add all the ingredients at once for this one. If you’re not going to add the yeast I’d double the starter used. Without the yeast (7 grams of instant yeast is a lot), be prepared to wait for the dough to rise for a while -which is further reasoning for not autolysing!
On a side note, I have no idea what the benefit of adding sugar and cocoa powder to a starter is. It looks like pure madness to me as the cocoa won’t ferment and the sugar, especially in the high quantities suggested will imbalance the natural fermentation process of the sourdough by drawing water away from the yeast and bacteria. But hey… If it works, it works!
There are reasons for and against it, but if you are happy with the results, there is no reason to change.
The extra sugars will provide a boost for the yeast, so I wouldn’t do it if you are including the yeast/sourdough starter in the autolyse, nor would I add the honey to a dough that is to be long fermented. A dough that’s going to be baked in 2-5 hours will be more suited to the extra sugars found in the honey. But if it works for you, keep doing it!
Hi, I’m Gareth Busby, a baking coach, lecturer and bread fanatic. My goal is to help you become a better baker.
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