What Does Oil Do In Baking Bread?

What does oil do to bread
Published on
10 September 2021
Gareth Busby
Gareth Busby

If you like to bake your own bread at home, chances are that you have come across a recipe with oil. It’s common to know that oil contains fat and many calories, but what does oil do when baking bread?

The oil enhances the texture, flavour, and moisture of bread. Vegetable oil contains many fatty acids and also lecithin which make the dough easier to handle and prevents it from being sticky. They also help to extend the shelf-life of bread by staying softer for a longer period. 

The benefits of adding oil to bread

Adding oil to bread has a lot of benefits, most of which are explained here:

Crumb structure

Oil improves the texture of bread by helping to produce a close-knit gluten structure. The fatty acids in the oil coat the gluten, which reduces the amount of water that can be absorbed by the gluten. The gluten strands are then prevented from fully stretching out, thus pricing shorter strands that are more compact.

Keeping the gluten contracted improves the bread’s crumb by reducing the size of the air pockets to make the texture light and fluffy.

Texture and moisture retention

When an oil component is added to your bread dough, not only will it improve the crumb structure, but it will also make a softer and moist loaf. This is because the oil in the dough prevents water from evaporating during baking. As the water is retained, it keeps the baked bread moist and tenderized.

Shelf-life extension

Extra moisture in bread made with oil leads to a longer-lasting bread. The dough retains moisture for longer to appease tastebuds. Though the extra moisture does provide more water activity which will lead to increased microbiological activity and the earlier onset of mould. This is somewhat protected by the extra acidity of the oil, yet further dough improvers could be used to delay mould further.

Lecithin present in oil slows down starch retrogradation which is often referred to as staling. This is where the starch particles release moisture and recrystallise. Adding oil to the dough will make the starch molecules more hydrophobic. This means that it will be less likely to absorb excess water. Without water, enzymes in the dough will have a hard time operating and breaking down starch molecules. If this process is inhibited, the bread structure will remain unchanged for a longer period of time.

Flavour carriers

Oil content acts as a flavour carrier to bread because oil absorbs flavours into its own structure. This gives the bread a rich, fuller taste even when small quantities of oil are added.

Flavour enhancers

Oil also enhances the flavour of bread by bringing out the natural flavour of the flour. This enhancement is due to the Maillard reaction, in which sugars and amino acids react when exposed to heat.

It intensifies the taste of the bread whilst adding caramelised “flavour notes” which perfume the interior of the bread. This is why we often toast bread—aside from making it crispy, the browning makes the bread taste more flavourful.

Bread with added fats brown faster when baked. Depending on how much oil is used you should consider turning down the heat of your oven midway, or at the start of baking.

Delays crust formation

Oil will also delay crust formation. This benefits the oven spring and means there is less need to add steam to the oven when baking. It also leads to a stronger, yet thinner crust which helps the crumb stay fresh as it reduces air exposure.


Fatty acids in the oil will lubricate the dough’s gluten strands to prevent them from sticking together. It also benefits lamination properties as layers of dough don’t stick together easily and are easier to roll out. This is great for croissants!

It’s also thought to lead to a better rise and an improved crumb structure. As the gluten does not stick together, the carbon dioxide will be able to escape and your dough juices will rise up instead of pushing down.


Besides that, oil also helps in making the handling of the dough easier for bakers. The dough will not be sticky, and therefore very manageable. It would, in turn, prevent the bread from deflating prematurely. This will increase the oven spring as less energy is required to raise dough that contains oil.

Oil is also great as a release agent so products don’t get stuck, but you probably already knew this!

What type of oil should I use for bread?

The type of oil you should use depends on what outcome you want your bread to have. There are various types of oils, each with its own purpose. Listed below are some of them:

Olive oil

Olive oil is best for making focaccia or rustic bread because it will give a more subtle flavour and a slightly fruity taste to the dough. It does not contain lecithin and therefore is not as good at enhancing dough structure and shelf life. But it does have plenty of fatty acids which will tenderise the bread. Olive oil is perfect for bread with toppings as it does not create a greasy layer on the exterior of the bread.

Vegetable oil

Vegetable oil is a versatile oil that is the most commonly used oil for making baked goods. It is extracted from either of the following plants:

  • Canola
  • Rapeseed
  • Corn
  • Sunflower
  • Soybean
  • Avocado

Yet it can also be a combination of the above. These types of oil are very versatile and can be applied to different types of baking needs. They are perfect for bread making as they do not have strong tastes and can bring out the flavour of other ingredients. They are also very cost-effective!

Flavoured oil

Flavoured oil such as garlic, walnut, and sesame can also be used in making bread. These types of oil can provide a nice twist to your regular bread recipes and create different variations. They all have their unique distinct taste, so it’s nice to experiment with each one of them to see which one works the best for you.

Can I use hard fats instead of oil?

On the other hand, shortening products such as butter and lard are great for making croissants and brioche. Using these fats will give a very short, buttery flavour to the end product. These shortening products are also often used in making pastry dough. They will give a tender crumb structure to the final product.

How much oil should I use?

For most types of bread 2-5% of the total flour should be used. This can increase with enriched bread, however, at higher levels the oil can damage the gluten. When adding oil at levels higher than 5%, delay its inclusion until near the end of mixing.

Conclusion on using oil in bread dough

All in all, the type of oil you should use depends on what kind of bread you intend to make. The type of oil will affect the final taste and appearance of your product. That’s why it’s better if you experiment with different types of oils to see which one fits your recipe. But for the most part, the variety of vegetable oil would usually work well. Let me know what you think and your experiences with using oil in bread in the comments section below.

Frequently asked questions about oil in bread

Can I make bread with oil that has an open crumb?
The inclusion of oil in bread dough leads to the shortening of the gluten strands. The effect of this is the gluten doesn’t stretch as far and the crumb is closely knit. To offset this it is possible to delay the addition of the oil to the end of mixing the dough. This will allow the gluten to have time to uncoil before the fat is added.
Can I use olive oil instead of vegetable oil in bread?
Yes. Olive oil can be substituted for vegetable oil, a 1 to 1 ratio would work fine with it. However, since olive oil has a distinct fruity flavour, it will affect the overall flavour of your baked goods.
What can I use instead of canola oil?
If you’re looking for a substitute for the neutral taste of canola oil, rapeseed oil is best. Canola is a type of rapeseed oil, therefore, is very similar. If you can’t get this, grapeseed oil, sunflower oil or any vegetable oil will work well. All of these are commonly used in baking and have a similar smoke point as well. They’re usually substituted with a 1 to 1 ratio.
Where can I get canola oil?
Most supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stops sell canola oil. It is one of the most widely-used oils in commercial food production, so it can be found in almost any store. Alternatively, you can also purchase online.
Where can I get canola oil in the UK?
It is hard to find canola oil in the Uk but it can be found in American aisles in large supermarkets. You can use rapeseed or vegetable oil instead.
Is canola oil the same as rapeseed oil?
Canola is a variety of rapeseed oil that is not the same, but similar to the oil that is advertised as rapeseed oil.
Does oil help bread rise?
The inclusion of oil in bread dough does not help it to rise, but it does aid the oven spring. This is done by raising the smoke point and lowering the intensity of the heat. Covering dough with a layer of oil when it rises does protect it from drying out so that it can rise further.

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Comments (10)

  • Thanks for the info. It helps me a lot to understand the roles of oil in bread baking.

    Recently I’ve tried to bake vegan burger bun with sunflower oil and soy milk. I found that the sough didn’t rise in the oven though everything went fine till the proofing. What’s wrong with it?

    Baker’s percent of the ingredients is as follows;
    Bread flour 80%
    T65 20%
    Salt 2%
    IDY 1.2%
    Sugar 9%
    Soy milk 35%
    Water 40%
    Sunflower oil 10%, added after development of enough gluten.

    Thank you

    • That’s great! Thanks for your comment, your issue could be to do with the high sugar percentage. Anything higher than 5% causes osmotic strain on the yeast which prevents it from rising. You’ll need to use SAF osmotolerant yeast to cope with the high sugar, alternatively use less sugar and/or more yeast. If you used sweetened soy milk the sugar content will be even higher. I’d halve the sugar next time and see how you get on.

      P.S. I love that you’re adding the oil later on!

  • Wow! Another fantastic article that tremendously increased my bread making knowledge.

    I’ve been trying to bake sandwich bread that approximates what can be bought at a store. The recipe is from another website that I frequently use for many other kinds of dishes with great success, but the sandwich bread recipe always comes out driee and less soft than store bought loafs.

    Based on this article (and your other articles like how to make a soft crust), I finally nailed it. Doubling the butter and vegetable oil, baking hotter, and cooling covered with a dish towel resulted in an incredibly soft, moist loaf. Thanks for so selflessly sharing your knowledge!

    I’m buying you another cup of coffee.

    • Thanks so much, Jimmie! I’m so glad you’ve utilised the tips and got the results you wanted!
      I will enjoy the coffee 🙂

  • It is so thoughtful of you to provide this very useful information. I thought you might like to know how you have helped a fellow baker. I was a professional chef 40 years ago, but not a baker. I retired 8 years ago and took up baking. I bake all the bread for my family. We live in rural Alabama where there is no such thing as a good bagel. Recently, I took up bagel making and, after 8 experimental batches, have produced a reliably good bagel with well developed flavor and a nice chew. I have developed a very good pumpernickel bread recipe. So, I decided to make pumpernickel bagels, by adapting my bread recipe to the things I had learned about bagel making. As soon as I started kneading the dough, I knew I was in trouble. Though I had added vital wheat gluten and diastatic malt, the gluten strands, so important to bagels, we’re not developing properly. I knew it had to have something to do with an ingredient in my pumpernickel recipe that was not in my bagel recipe: rye flour, molasses or canola oil. This morning, I read your article and there it was, spelled out as clearly as if you had put my name on it. Thank you very much for helping me in my quest for the perfect pumpernickel bagel. I find much to dislike about the internet, but the selflessness of people like you makes it all worthwhile.

    • That’s absolutely, truly, fantastically great to hear I’ve helped you on your way.

      Thanks for your comment and let me know how your perfect pumpernickel bagel quest goes!!

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